Environmental Movements

The modern environmental movement has grown and changed in a number of ways since its (re)emergence in the 1960s and 1970s. Key to those changes have been ever more sophisticated understandings of the ways in which environmental issues and social issues are inextricably intertwined. The two most significant movements to further this understanding have been "ecofeminism" and the movement against "environmental racism." As ecofeminism expanded outward from its focus on the relationship between women's oppression and environmental degradation to look at the impacts of race, class and colonialism, so too has the movement against environmental racism moved outward to a larger sense of environmental justice that likewise includes this range of social issues as they are interwoven with environmental issues.

In addition to sites representing feminist environmental justice, the sites and bibliography below also include so-called mainstream environmental groups that also play a vital role.

Featured Site

Ecofeminist/Environmental Justice Sites

Mainstream Sites

See also our sister site Environmental Justice Cultural Studies

Select Bibliography on Ecofeminsm

Alaimo, S. (2000). Undomesticated Ground - Recasting Nature as Feminist Space. New York: Cornell University Press.
Allister, Mark (Ed.). (2004). Eco-man: new perspectives on masculinity and nature. University of Virginia Press: Charlottesville.
Braidotti, R. et al. (1994). Women, the Environment and Sustainable Development. Zed Books: London.
Cook, Barbara. (2007). Women Writing Nature: A Feminist View. Lexington Books: Lanham.
Cudworth, Erika. (2005). Developing Ecofeminist Theory: the complexity of difference. Palgrave Macmillan: New York.
Cuomo, C.J. (1998). Feminism and Ecological Communities: An Ethic of Flourishing. Routledge: London.
Daly, M. (1978). Gyn/Ecology. The Women’s Press: London.
Diamond, I. & Orenstein, G. (eds.) (1990). Reweaving The World-The Emergence Of Ecofeminism. Sierra Club Books: San Francisco.
Eaton, Heather and Lois Ann Lorentzen. (2003). Ecofeminism & Globalization: Exploring Culture, Context, and Religion. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Gaard, G. (1994). Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature. Temple University Press.
--. (1998) Ecological Politics: Ecofeminists and the Greens. Temple UP.
Gaard, G & Murphy, P (1998) Ecofeminist Literary Criticism: Theory, Interpretation, Pedagogy.
Griffin, Susan. (1978). Woman and Nature. The Women’s Press: London.
Haraway, Donna. (2003). The Companion Species Manifesto: Dogs, People, and Significant Otherness. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press.
--. (2004). The Haraway Reader. New York: Routledge.
--. (1997). Modest_Witness@Second_Millennium. FemaleMan©_Meets_OncoMouse™ Feminism and Technoscience. New York: Routledge.
--. (1989). Primate Visions: Gender, Race and Nature in the World of Modern Science. New York: Routledge.
--. (1991). Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge.
--. (2008). When Species Meet. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Hawthorne, Susan. (2002). Wild Politics: Feminism, Globalisation, and Bio/Diversity. North Melbourne: Spinifex Press.
Kheel, Marti. (2008). Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Mellor, M. (1992). Breaking The Boundaries- Towards a Feminist Green Socialism. Virago: London.
--. (1997). Feminism and Ecology. Polity Press: Cambridge.
Merchant, C. (1980). The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution. Harper Row: San Francisco.
--. (1989). Ecological Revolutions: Nature, Gender and Science in New England. Univ. of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill.
--. (1992). Radical Ecology: The Search for a Livable World. Routledge: London.
--. (1995). Earthcare: Women and the Environment.
Merchant, C. (ed.). (1994). Ecology. Humanities Press: New Jersey.
Murphy, P. (1995). Literature, Nature, and Other- Ecofeminist Critiques. SUNY: New York.
Norwood, V. (1993). Made from This Earth: American Women and Nature.
Plumwood, Val. (1997). Environmental Culture. Routledge: London.
--. (1993). Feminism and the Mastery of Nature. Routledge: London.
Ress, Mary Judith. (2006). Ecofeminism in Latin America: Women from the Margins. Maryknoll: Orbis Books.
Salleh, A. (1997). Ecofeminism As Politics: Nature, Marx and the Postmodern. Zed Books: London.
Sandilands, C. (1999). The Good-Natured Feminist: Ecofeminism and the Quest for Democracy.
Seager, J. (1993). Earth Follies: Feminism, Politics and The Environment. New York: EarthScan.
Shiva, Vandana. (1997). Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge.
--. (1994). Close to Home: Women Reconnect Ecology, Health and Development.
--. (1993). Monocultures of the Mind: Perspectives on Biodiversity and Biotechnology.
--. (1989). Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development. London: Zed Books.
Shiva, V. & Mies, M. (1993). Ecofeminism. Zed Books: London.
Shiva, V. & Moser, I. (1995). Biopolitics: A Feminist and Ecological Reader on Biotechnology.
Sturgeon, N. (1997). Ecofeminist Natures: Race, Gender, Feminist Theory, and Political Action. Routledge: London.
--. (2009) Environmentalism and Popular Culture: Gender, Race, Sexuality and the Politics of the Natural. Tempe: University of Arizona Press.
Sullivan, Shannon. (2001). Living Across and Through Skins: transactional bodies, pragmatism, and feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Turpin, J. & Lorentzen, L. (1996). The Gendered New World Order: Militarism, Development, and the Environment. Routledge: London.
Warren, K. (ed.). (1997). Ecofeminism- Women, Culture, Nature. Indiana University Press: Indianapolis.
--. (1994). Ecological Feminism. Routledge: London.
--. (1996). Ecological Feminist Philosophies. Indiana University Press: Indianapolis.

Environlmental Justice Select Bibliography

Bullard, Robert D. (1990) Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Bullard, Robert D., ed. (1993) Confronting Environmental Racism: Voices from the Grassroots. Boston, Massachusetts: South End Press.
Bullard, Robert D., ed. (1994) Unequal Protection: Environmental Justice and Communities of Color. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.
Faber, Daniel, ed. (1998) The Struggle for Ecological Democracy: Environmental Justice Movements in the United States. New York: Guilford Press.
Gedicks, Al (1993) The New Resource Wars: Native and Environmental Struggles Against Multinational Corporations. Boston, Massachusetts: South End Press.
Hofrichter, Richard, ed. (1993) Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Racism. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers.
Pellow , David Naguib and Robert J. Brulle, eds. (2005) Power, Justice, and the Environment: A Critical Appraisal of the Environmental Justice Movement. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Scholsberg, David. (1999) Environmental Justice and the New Pluralism: the Challenge of Difference for Environmentalism. Schlosberg, David. (2007) Defining Environmental Justice Theories, Movements, and Nature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Szasz, Andrew. (1994) Ecopopulism: Toxic Waste and the Movement for Environmental Justice. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.