Bibliography

This bibliography treats two primary aspects of "culture" in social movements: 1) the production of aesthetic and cultural forms in and around movements (songs in the Civil Rights, murals in the Chicano movement, etc.) and 2) movements as (sub)cultures within the larger society. It does not pretend to be comprehensive, but rather seeks to give a sense of the range of work that might be considered in any effort to expand our understanding of the still too little studied relationship between cultures and movements. The first section offers a set of readings that have attempted to theorize various kinds of relations between "culture" and "movements," while the remainder looks at some of the movements that have been particularly rich in cultural expression or influence. For purposes of comparison, it includes some examples (like hippies and Rastafarians) that can perhaps better be characterized as politicized subcultures rather than as movement cultures proper.

See also the bibliographies on the Art of Protest web site for additional, more recent works.

General Studies and Theoretical Work

Alexander, Jeffrey C. Performative Revolution in Egypt. NY and London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2011.
Using the case of the Tahir Square revolution, Alexander offers a striking analysis of how Egyptian protestors scripted and performed the revolt in order to raise broad issues of theatricality in movements.
d'Anjou, Leo. Social Movements and Cultural Change: The First Abolition Campaign Revisited. New York: Aldine, 1996.
Uses the first British anti-slavery campaign in the 18th century as a test case for explorations of the social construction of meaning via social movements.
Baumgarten, Britta, Priska Daphi and Peter Ullrich, eds. Conceptualizing Culture in Social Movement Research. NY: Palgrave, 2014.
Thirteen theoretical essays aimed to get beyond narrowly instrumentalist or otherwise reductive approaches to the cultural analysis of movements. The volume is divided into four sections, I: neglected general theories of culture -- Western Marxisms, the sociology of emotions, and recent anthropological theory; II: culture as a general framework or the formative condition for sms; III: the internal cultures of sms; IV: cultural change as a result of sm activity.
Davis, Joseph E. ed. Stories of Change: Narrative and Social Movements. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.
Ten essays drawing upon a range of narrative theories to examine the vital role of storytelling in framing, developing and maintaining movements.
Eyerman, Ron, and Andrew Jamison. Social Movements: A Cognitive Approach. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State Press, 1991.
Reconceptualizes both American and European social movement theory via a sociology of knowledge approach to "movement intellectuals," and collective actors engaging in "cognitive praxis."
Fantasia, Rick. Cultures of Solidarity: Consciousness, Action and Contemporary Workers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.
Takes an innovative look at the subcultures created by workers in unions, on the shop-floor and outside the job. His concept of "cultures of solidarity" connects in interesting ways to the idea of "movement cultures.
Fine, Gary Alan. "Public Narration and Group Culture: Discerning Discourse in Social Movements," in Social Movements and Culture. Ed. Hank Johnston and Bert Klandermans. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995. 127-143.
Friedman, Debra and Doug McAdam."Collective Identity and Activism," in Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. Ed. Aldon D. Morris and Carol McClurg Mueller. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992. 156-173.
Gamson, William A."The Social Psychology of Collective Action." in Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. Ed. Aldon D. Morris and Carol McClurg Mueller. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992. 53-76.
___. "Political Discourse and Collective Action." International Social Movement Research 1 (1988): 219-244.
Goodwyn, Lawrence.The Populist Moment. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Contains one of the earliest and most interesting elaborations of the concept of "movement culture."
Hunt, Scott A., Robert D. Benford, and David A. Snow. "Identity Fields: Framing Processes and the Social Construction of Movement Identities," in New Social Movements: From Ideology to Identity. Ed. Enrique Laraña, Hank Johnston, and Joseph Gusfield. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994. 185-208.
Jaspers, James J. Protest: A Cultural Introduction to Social Movements. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press, 2014.
Accessible, if rather dry, introduction to key cultural dimensions of movements; especially strong on the role of emotions, Jaspers's speciality.
Johnston, Hank, ed. Culture, Social Movements and Protest. Farham, UK: Ashgate, 2009.
Broad-ranging collection that includes theoretical approaches from storytelling analysis to speech act theory to examining movements as educational sites.
Johnston, Hank, and Bert Klandermans, eds. Social Movements and Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995.
The first anthology of theory dedicated fully to the topic of cultural approaches to social movement theorizing. In addition to articles cited herein, all the pieces in the volume raise interesting question about the relations between culture(s) and movements.
Johnston, Hank and Bert Klandermans. "The Cultural Analysis of Social Movements," in Hank Johnston and Bert Klandermans. eds. Social Movements and Culture.. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995. 3-24.
In the course of introducing the essays in the volume, the authors survey key questions in the cultural study of social movements, including conceptualizing culture in movement contexts, how movements process culture, and movement (sub)cultures as a characteristic of social movements.
Krasniewicz, Louise. Nuclear Summer: The Clash of Communities at the Seneca Women's Peace Encampment. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992.
Innovative use of postmodern ethnographic techniques to contrast the movement culture of the peace camp with the surrounding upstate New York community.
Lofland, John. "Charting Degrees of Movement Culture," in Social Movements and Culture. Eds. Hank Johnston and Bert Klandermans. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995. 188-216.
Attempts to develop something of a quantitative measure of degrees or depth of movement culture intensity along six dimensions and as manifested in six cultural locations.
McAdam, Doug. "Culture and Social Movements," in New Social Movements: From Ideology to Identity. Eds. Enrique Laraña, Hank Johnston, and Joseph Gusfield. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994. 36-57.
Offers theoretical overview of social movements in terms of three broad dimensions: the cultural roots of movements (drawing heavily on modified frame analysis), the emergence and development of movement cultures, and the cultural consequences and impacts of movements.
McAdam, Doug, and Mayer Zald, eds. Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
As the title implies, this book uses selected essays to compare three major approaches to movements. Section Three on framing is of greatest interest in this context, and McAdams' essay on CRM dramaturgy is especially suggestive.
Melucci, Alberto. Challenging Codes: Collective Action in the Information Age. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Melucci, a key theorist of "new social movements" in Europe, offers his most sustained analyses here of the symbolic-semiotic nature of contemporary movements. Includes both general theory and application to a number of recent movements.
___. Nomads of the Present.. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.
Important, innovative collection of essays using of a kind of cultural semiotics to understand the symbolic meanings posed by movements and the nature of movement-bred collective and individual identities. This work provides more compact access to the ideas elaborated in Challenging Codes.
___.. "Getting Involved: Identity and Mobilization in Social Movements," in Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. Eds. Aldon D. Morris and Carol McClurg Mueller. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. 104-129.
Summarizes some of Melucci's main conceptual innovations for studying symbolic action and collective identity in movements.
Morris, Aldon D., and Carol McClurg Mueller, eds. Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
This collection (several of whose essays are cited herein), is a transitionary volume indicating the beginnings of a shift toward greater interest in cultural matters in social movement theorizing. See the introduction and conclusion in additions to pieces cited here.
Reed, T. V. The Art of Protest: Culture and Activism from the CivilRights Movement to the Streets of Seattle. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota Press, 2005.
The entire book is relevant, but on theory see especially Chapter Ten: Reflections on the Cultural Study of Social Movements.
Sturgeon, Noël. “Theorizing Movements: Direct Action and Direct Theory, in Marcy Darnovsky, et al., eds. Cultural Politics and Social Movements. Philadelphia: Temple U P 1950), 35-51.
Brilliant interpretation of movement cultures as theorizing entities.
Swidler, Ann. "Cultural Power and Social Movements," in Social Movements and Culture.Eds. Hank Johnston and Bert Klandermans. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995. 25-40.
Surveys various general theories of "culture" and evaluates their relative usefulness for social movement analysis.
Taylor, Verta, and Nancy Whittier. "Collective Identity in Social Movement Communities: Lesbian Feminist Mobilization," in Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. Eds. Aldon D. Morris and Carol McClurg Mueller. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992. 104-129.
Expands and clarifies the often rigid concept of collective identity in insightful ways.
Taylor, Verta, and Nancy Whittier. "Analytical Approaches to Social Movement Culture," in Social Movements and Culture. Eds. Hank Johnston and Bert Klandermans. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995. 163-187.
Uses the example of the culture of the US second wave women's movement to provide a rich summary of ways to think about varieties of movement culture(s).
Young. Alison. Femininity in Dissent. New York: Routledge, 1990.
Analyzes press coverage of the Greenham Common women's peace camp in England using a feminist post-structuralist approach that has interesting implications for issues of cultural framing of movements.
Young, Stacey. Changing the Wor(l)d: Discourse, Politics, and the Feminist Movement. New York: Routledge, 1997.
Analyzes existing historiographies of second wave US feminism and existing social movement theory, noting their inadequacy vis-a-vis cultural-discursive dimensions. Then, drawing concepts judiciously from postmodern theory, offers a case study of cultural production within the movement.

Civil Rights and Black Power

Morris, Aldon D. Origins of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Free Press, 1984.
Excellent treatment of church culture and politics of early Civil Rights Movement (CRM).
Payne, Charles M. I've Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
The best book on the movement culture of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and the richest treatment of the radically democratic culture growing out of the "organizing tradition" nourished by folks like Ella Baker.
Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. New York: Dell Publishing, 1968.
Fine story of a young black SNCC volunteer exploring the inner tensions of the culture of the CRM.
King, Mary (Mary Elizabeth). Freedom Song: A Personal Story of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement. New York: Morrow, 1987.
Fine account of a white woman in the culture of SNCC; especially good on role of music.
Levine, Lawrence W. Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American folk thought from Slavery to Freedom.New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
Historical overview of black culture from 18th to mid 20th century.
Spencer, Jon Michael. Protest and Praise: Sacred Music and Black Religion. Minneapolis: Fortune Press, 1989.
Includes important work on "freedom song" tradition.
Bullins, Ed, ed. New Plays for the Black Theater. New York: Bantam Books, 1969.
Selection of black power plays by a variety of playwrights.
Jones, Leroi (aka Amiri Baraka). Home: Social Essays. New York: Morrow, 1966.
Shows evolution of Jones' black power aesthetic.
Baraka, Imamu Amira (aka Leroi Jones). Selected Plays. New York: Morrow, 1979.
Bullins, Ed. The Theme Is Blackness. New York: Morrowo, 1973.
His collected black power (BP) plays.
Fabvre, Geneviève. Drumbeats, Masks, and Metaphor (Theatre noir aux Etats-Unis. English). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983.
Sophisticated study of black theater, especially the BP phase.
Gayle, Addison, ed. The Black Aesthetic (1971). Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Co.
Chapman, Abraham, ed. New Black Voices. New York: New American Library, 1972.
Along with Gayle's important anthology (above), this book covers black power poetry, drama, fiction, and criticism influenced by the black power movement.
Walker, Alice. Meridian. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976.
Powerful novel about the CRM and BP.
Bambara, Toni Cade. The Salt Eaters. New York: Random House, 1980.
Great novel about the sixties and its aftermath among black activists, especially women.
Fundi: The Story of Ella Baker. Dir. Joanne Grant. First Run/Icarus Films, 1981.
Fine film on the life of key CRM organizer Ella Baker.

New Left, Anti-War and Student Movements of 1960s

Bloom, Alexander and Wini Breines, eds. "Takin' it to the Streets": A Sixties Reader. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
The best of the many anthologies of sixties movement documents.
Sale, Kirkpatrick. SDS. New York: Random House, 1973.
Most comprehensive book on the key student movement group, and the one that best captures its movement culture.
Teodori, Massimo. The New Left: A Documentary History. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1969.
Excellent collection of brief histories and documents. Includes anti-war, draft resistance, and black power. Better than any of the later anthologies.
Breines, Wini. Community and Organization in the New Left, 1962-1968: The Great Refusal. New York: Praeger, 1982.
In many respects the best book on the New Left, especially in understanding the cultural sense of the movement as building in its own movement culture kind of community it wished to have embodied in the larger culture.
Miller, Jim. Democracy is in the Streets: From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.
Best book on the intellectual origins of the New Left, but underestimates role of CRM, and overestimates the centrality of Tom Hayden.
Gitlin, Todd. The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage. Toronto: Bantam Books, 1987.
Narrative history/autobiography that is good on the culture of early years of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), but totally wrong-headed about the role of the women's movement and black radicalism, blaming them for mistakes made by the New Left itself.
Katsiaficas, George N. The Imagination of the New Left: A Global Analysis of 1968. Boston: South End Press, 1987.
Sets the US New Left in its proper place as part of an international student movement.
Marwick, Arthur. The Sixties: Cultural Revolution in Britain, France, Italy, and the United States, c. 1958-c.1974. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1998.
A more cultural approach to the issues raised by Katsiaficas.
Mendel-Reyes, Meta. Reclaiming Democracy: The Sixties in Politics and Memory. New York: Routledge, 1995.
Thoughtful mediation on sixties movements and their misrepresentation in later media accounts.
Peck, Abe. Uncovering the Sixties: The Life and Times ofthe Underground Press. New York: Pantheon Books, 1985.
Perceptive reminiscences of a reporter at the center of the sixties alternative New Left/counterculture underground newspaper scene.
Anderson, Terry H. The Movement and the Sixties. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Good general history of the interrelations among sixties movements as the Movement.
Isserman, Maurice. If I Had a Hammer.New York: Basic Books, 1987.
Good book on transition from Old Left to New Left.
Farrell, James J. The Spirit of the Sixties: Making Postwar Radicalism. New York: Routledge, 1997.
Argues the importance of "personalist" politics to the New Left and other sixties movements.
Calvert, Greg, and Carol Neiman.A Disrupted History: The New Left and the New Capitalism. New York: Random House, 1971.
Fine on-the-spot analysis of where SDS took its wrong turns in late sixties.
Bacciocco, Edward J. The New Left in America:Reform to Revolution, 1956 to 1970. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1974.
A European perspective on the US New Left.
Oglesby, Carl, ed. The New Left Reader. New York: Grove Press, 1969.
Jacobs, Harold, ed. Weatherman. Berkeley: Ramparts Press, 1970.
Collection of documents and essays on the mad end of SDS.
Jacobs, Ron. The Way the Wind Blew: A History of the Weather Underground. London: Verso, 1997.
Comprehensive account of the rise and fall of one strand of the New Left's turn to violence.
Whalen, Jack, and Richard Flacks. Beyond the Barricades: The Sixties Generation Grows Up. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.
Excellent refutation of the notion that the New Left generation turned conservative later on. Documents the continuing community activism of most sixties activists. See a similar set of data in Doug McAdam, Freedom Summer (1988).
Ferber, Michael, and Staughton Lynd. The Resistance. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971.
Fine account of the draft resistance movement.
Freeman, Jo, ed. Social Movements of the Sixties and Seventies. United Kingdom: Longman Group, 1983.
Lyons, Paul.New Left, New Right, and the Legacy of the Sixties. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.
Makes the important point that the rise of the New Right in the seventies and eightiesis deeply connected to the rise of the New Left in the sixties.
Dickstein, Morris. Gates of Eden: American Culture in the Sixties.New York: Basic Books, 1977.
Good on fifties roots of sixties literary & cultural rebellion.
Frank, Thomas C. The Conquest of the Cool: Business Culture, Counterculture, and the Rise of Hip Consumerism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Brilliant study of how advertising and the media co-opted the rebellions of the sixties into a sales pitch for new products and lifestyles.
Sayres, Sohnya, et al., eds. The Sixties Without Apology. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.
Collection of essays on various aspects of politics, culture and the arts in sixties movements.
Tischler, Barbara L., ed. Sights on the Sixties.New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992.
Excellent collection of revisionist essays on New Left and other aspects of sixties.
Gitlin, Todd. The Whole World Is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.
Excellent account of the media's impact on New Left that offers general insights into the shaping of movements in mass media "frames."
Rorabaugh, W.J. Berkeley at War, The 1960s.New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
The New Left and related movements as developed in one of the hotbeds of sixties activism.
Hoffman, Abbie. Soon to Be a Major Motion Picture. New York: Putnam, 1980.
Amusing autobiography revealing the trickster cultural politics of the "Yippies".
Doctorow, E. L. The Book of Daniel. New York: Random House, 1971.
Superb novel on the fifties and sixties, old left and new.
The War at Home. Dir. Glenn Silber. First Run Features, 1979.
A documentary on the resistance to the Vietnam War in Madison, Wisconsin.
Berkeley in the '60s. Dir. Mark Kitchell. First Run Features, 1990.
Similar to The War at Home (above), but following activity at UC, Berkeley.
The Weather Underground. Dir. Sam Green and Bill Siegel. New Video Group, 2002.
A documentary on The Weather Underground, a group of radical activists from the seventies.

The Hippie Counterculture

Hall, S. "The Hippies." Student Power. Ed. Julian Nagel. Merlin, 1969.
The most insightful reading of the hippie counterculture as a political manifestation.
Berger, Bennett M. The Survival of a Counterculture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981.
Wolfe, Tom. The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1968.
Wildride on "Further" explores the cultural politics of Ken Kesey's cabal.
Yablonsky, Lewis. The Hippie Trip. New York: Pegasus,1968.
Willis, Paul E. Profane Culture. London: Routledge and K. Paul,1978.
Compares biker and hippie subcultures.
Lee, Martin A. Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD, and the Sixties Rebellion.New York: Grove Press, 1985.
Stevens, Jay. Storming Heaven: LSD and the American Dream.New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1987.
With Lee (above) the two most perceptive accounts of the cultural meaning of LSD in the context of the sixties.
Whitmer, Peter O. Aquarius Revisited: Seven Who Created the Sixties Counterculture That Changed America: William Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg, Ken Kesey, Timothy Leary, Norman Mailer, Tom Robbins, Hunter S. Thompson. New York: Macmillian, 1987.
Focuses on seven men (William S. Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg, Key Kesey, Timothy Leary, Norman Mailer, Tom Robbins, and Hunter S. Thompson), situating them historically and interviewing them on their retrospective views of the counterculture(s) they helped create.

Guerrilla Media and Alternative Theater

Chandler, Annmarie and Norie Newmark. At a Distance: Precursurs to Art and Activism on the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.
De Jong, Wilma et al. Global Activism, Global Media. London: Pluto Press, 2005.
Boyle, Deirdre.Subject to Change: Guerrilla Television Revisited. NY: Oxford UP, 1997.
Shank, Theodore. American Alternative Theater. New York: Grove Press, 1982.
Includes essays on Teatro Campesino, SF Mime Troupe, and others.
Weisman, John. Guerrilla Theater: Scenarios for Revolution. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1973.
Lesnick, Henry, ed. Guerrilla Street Theater. UK: Avon, 1973.
Anthology with examples of new left, black power, and early feminist street theater works with commentary.
Henri, Adrian. Total Art: Environments, Happenings and Performance.London: W W Norton and Co., Inc., 1974.
On experimental theater, happenings, of sixties and since.
Schechter, Joel. Durov's Pig: Clowns, Politics, and Theater. New York: Theatre Communications Group, 1985.
Interesting book on European and American theater and politics.

Farmworkers, Chicano Power and the Community Mural Movement

Cockcroft, Eva Sperling, and Holly Barnet-Sanchez, eds. Signs from the Heart: California Chicano Murals. New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press, 1990.
Four excellent, richly illustrated essays on the mural movement in the context of the Chicano movement culture.
Barnett, Alan. Community Murals: The People's Art. Philadelphia: Art Alliance Press, 1984.
Gaspbar de Alba, Alicia. Chicano Art Inside/Outside the Master's House: Cultural Politics and the CARA Exhibit Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998.
Brilliant interpretative study of the major Chicano art exhibit of the 1990s, analyzing the history of race, class, gender, and sexuality dynamics in history of the Chicano/a movement as embodied in the art works.
Cockcroft, Eva, John Weber, and Jim Cockcroft. Toward a People's Art: The Contemporary Mural Movement. New York: Dutton, 1977.
Quirarte, Jacinto. Chicano Art History: A Book of Selected Readings. San Antonio: University of Texas, 1984.

American Indian Movements

Smith, Paul Chaat, and Robert Warrior. Like a Hurricane: The Indian Movement from Alcatraz to Wounded Knee. New York: New Press, 1996.
Best history of the American Indian radicalism of the sixties and seventies.
Brown, Dee Alexander. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: an Indian history of the American West. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974.
Deloria, Vine.Behind the Trail of Broken Treaties:an Indian declaration of independence. New York: Delacorte Press, 1976.
Brown & Deloria's books are moving accounts of the long history of oppression and genocide waged against Indian.
Coe, Ralph T.Lost and Found Tradition: Native American Art, 1965-1985. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1986.
Welch, James. Fool's Crow. New York: Viking, 1986.
---. Winter in the Blood. New York: Penguin Books, 1974.
Both of thesenovels by Welch are excellent portrayals of Indian life.
Silko, Leslie Marmon. Storyteller. New York: Seaver Books, 1981.
Story collection drawing on and rewriting native myth with contemporary twists.
---. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Books, 1977.
---. Almanac of the Dead. New York: Penguin Books, 1991. Silko's three fictions are superb works steeped in the politics and spirituality of contemporary Indian life.
Hale, Janet Campbell. The Jailing of Cecelia Capture. New York: Random House, 1985.
Excellent novel set partly in Northwest.
Crow Dog, Mary, and Richard Erdoes. Lakota Woman. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1990.
Ghost-authored, controversial autobiography of a woman active in the American Indian Movement (AIM).
Lakota Woman. Dir. Frank Pierson. Perf. Dave Bald Eagle, Lawrence Bayne. Atlanta, GA: Turner Home Entertainment, 1994.
Made for TV movie from Crow Dog's book.
Thunderheart. Dir. Michael Apted. Perf. Val Kilmer, Sam Shepard.Burbank, CA: Columbia TriStar Home Video, 1992.
Hollywood movie version of events during AIM era.
Powwow Highway. Dir. Jonathan Wacks. Perf. A Martinez, Gary Farmer. StarMaker, 1997.
Fine funny film about contemporary reservation life and the struggle between assimilationist andtraditionalist Indians.

Women's Movements

Smith, Barbara Herndon, ed. Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology. New York: Kitchen Table - Women of Color Press, 1983.
Hull, Gloria T., Patricia Bell Scott, and Barbara Smith, eds. All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, But Some of Us Are Brave: Black Women's Studies. Old Westbury, NY: Feminist Press, 1982.
Two classic anthologies that include some feminist literary pieces.
Fisher, Dexter, ed. The Third Woman: Minority WomenWriters of the United States. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1980.
Fine collection that includes poetry, and fiction by feminist women of color.
Anzaldua, Gloria, and Cherrie Moraga, eds. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color. Waterown, MA: Persephone Press, 1981.
Pioneering anthology of Chicana, black and native American feminism that includes poetry and short fiction.
Leavitt, Dinah Luise.Feminist Theatre Groups. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1980.
Keyssar, Helene. Feminist Theatre: An Introduction to Plays of Contemporary British and American Women. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan, 1984.
Hart, Lynda, ed. Making a Spectacle: Feminist Essays on Contemporary Women's Theater. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989.
Roth, Moira, ed.The Amazing Decade: Women and Performance Art in America. Los Angeles: Astro Artz, 1983.
Lippard, Lucy R.From the Center: Feminist Essays on Women's Art. New York: Dutton, 1976.
Chicago, Judy.The Dinner Party: A Symbol of Our Heritage. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1979.
Large scale feminist art work.
Davidson, Sara. Loose Change: Three Women of the Sixties. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976.
Fictionalized autobiography with accounts of early women's liberation movement.
Shulman, Alix Kates. Burning Questions.New York: Knopf, 1978.
Novel that catches the spirit of the early second wave women's liberation.
French, Marilyn. The Woman's Room. New York: Summit Books, 1977.
A somewhat watered-down but influential version of the above, Shulman's Burning Questions.
Bambara, Toni Cade. The Salt Eaters.New York: Random House, 1980.
Great novel about the sixties and its aftermath among black activists, especially women.
Flores, Angel and Kate Flores, The Defiant Muse: Hispanic Feminist Poems: A Bilingual Anthology . New York: The Feminist Press at CUNY, 1993.
Covers several centuries of poetry by women of Spanish and Latina descent.
Rich, Adrienne. Blood, Bread and Poetry: selected prose, 1979-1985.New York: Norton, 1986.
Collections of Rich's essays, including much on relations between poetry and feminism.
Howe, Florence, ed. No More Masks!: An Anthology of 20th Century American Women Poets. New York: HarperPerennial, 1993.
Uneven in quality but rich in variety of poets and poems.
Ostriker, Alicia. Stealing the Language:the emergence of women's poetry in America. Boston: Beacon Press, 1986.
Excellent history of 20th century American women's poetry.
Montefiore, Jan. Feminism and Poetry: Language, Experience, Identity in Women's Writing. London: Pandora, 1987.
Excellent introduction to a variety of issues in the relations between various feminisms and various poetries.
And books of poems by any of the following feminist poets: Adrienne Rich, Judy Grahn, Grace Paley, Gwendolyn Brooks, Ntozake Shange, June Jordan, Sonia Sanchez, Cherríe Moraga, Gloria Anzaldúa, Jayne Cortez, Mitsuye Yamada, Audre Lorde, Lucille Clifton, Marge Piercy, Paula Gunn Allen, Janice Mirikitani, Rita Dove, Joy Harjo, Marilyn Hacker, Lorna Dee Cervantes, Toi Derricotte, Irena Kelpfisz, among many, many others.

Environmentalism and Eco-Art

Beardsley, John. Earthworks and Beyond: Contemporary Art in the Landscape. New York: Abbeville Press, 1984.
Sonfist, Alan, ed. Art in the Land: a Critical Anthology of Environmental Art. New York: Dutton, 1983.
Matilsky, Barbara C. Fragile Ecologies: Contemporary Artists' Interpretations and Solutions. New York: Rizzoli International, 1992.
Interesting survey of earthworks and eco-active art forms.
Merchant, Carolyn. Radical Ecology: The Search for a Livable World. New York: Routledge, 1992
. The best general introduction to various strands of radical environmentalism (Greenpeace, ecofem, etc.).
Bari, Judi. Timber Wars. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1994.
Moving personal account of woman eco-warrior paralyzed by a bomb planted by timber industry terrorists.
Warren, Karen, ed. Ecological Feminism.London: Routledge, 1994.
King, Ynestra. What is Ecofeminism? New York: Ecofeminist Resources, 1990.
Best short intro to the topic.
Sturgeon, Noel. Ecofeminist Natures: Race, Gender, Feminist Theory and Political Action.New York: Routledge, 1997.
Excellent study of race and gender in environmental thought and action.
Bookchin, Murray. The Ecology of Freedom.Palo Alto, CA: Cheshire Books, 1982.
Scarce, Rik. Eco-Warriors understanding the radical environmental movement. Chicago: Noble Press, 1990.
Fine survey of Greenpeace, Earth First! and other environmental movement groups.
Davis, John, and D. Foreman. The Earth First! Reader: Ten Years of Radical Environmentalism. Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith, 1991.
Tokar, Brian. The Green Alternative: Creating an Ecological Future.San Pedro, CA: R & E Miles, 1987.
Excellent summary of the European and American green parties' alternative to politics as usual.
Seager, Joni. Earth Follies: Coming to Feminist Terms with the Global Environmental Crisis. New York: Routledge, 1993.
Feminist analysis of global environmental problems and solutions.

SEE ALSO Environmental Justice Cultural Studies

Gay/Lesbian/Queer Movements and Cultures

Anzaldua, Gloria, and Cherie Moraga, eds. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color. Original: Watertown, Mass.: Persephone Press, 1981. 4th Edition, SUNY Press, 2015.
Classic collection of essays, poetry and fiction on race, sex, and movement cultures.
Bad Object Choices, eds. How Do I Look? Queer Film and Video. Seattle: BayPress, 1991.
Chauncey, George. Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940. New York: Basic Books, 1994.
Superb history of the development of urban gay culture.
D'Emilio, John. Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States, 1940-1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.
Classic study of the relation between gay culture(s) and emerging gay movements.
D'Emilio, John, and Estelle B. Freedman. Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.
First overall history of minoritized sexualities in US.
Doan, Laura, ed. The Lesbian Postmodern. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
Rich theoretical discussion of lesbian/queer cultures at the turn of the 20th century.
Dyer, Richard, ed. Now You See It: Studies on Lesbian and Gay Film. New York: Routledge, 1991.
Important study of films by and about gays and lesbians.
Stein, Arlene, ed. Sisters, Sexperts, Queers: Beyond the Lesbian Nation. New York: Plume, 1993.
Good collection with insights on various aspects of lesbian/queer movement subcultures.
Stein, Marc. Rethinking the Gay and Lesbian Movement. New York: Routledge, 2012.
Excellent, comprehensive readable narrative history based on meticulous research.
Lorde, Audre. Sister Outsider Essays and Speeches. Trumansburg, New York: Crossing Press, 1984.
Classic autoethnography of movement activist and poet stressing the interrelations among oppressions and the need for coalitional resistance.
Sedgwick, Eva Kosofsky. Epistemology of the Closet. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
One of the key originating books of queer theory, and an important reflection on the politics of gay cultures.
Vaid, Urvashi. Virtual Equality: The Mainstreaming of Gay and Lesbian Liberation. New York: Anchor Books, 1995.
Arguably the best book yet written on the history of gay, lesbian, queer movements in the US.
Warner, Michael, ed., Fear of a Queer Planet: Queer Politics and Social Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.
Excellent collection of essays relating queer culture to social and political theory and action. See especially the piece by Patton on conservative backlash against gay movements.
Queen, Carol and Lawrence Schimel, eds. PoMoSexuals: Challenging Assumptions About Gender and Sexuality. San Francisco: Cleis Press, 1997.
Califia, Pat. Sex Changes: The Politics of Transgenderism. New York: Richard Kasak Book, 1997.

HIV/AIDS Activist Art and Culture

Crimp, Douglas, and Adam Rolston, eds. AIDS Demo Graphics Seattle: Bay Press, 1990.
Excellent book on AIDS graphic arts and demonstration art.
Crimp, Douglas, ed. AIDS: Cultural Analysis/Cultural Activism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1988.
Important collection analyzing the discourse about AIDS and various aspects of AIDS art activism.
Epstein, Steven. Impure Science: AIDS, Activism, and the Politics of Knowledge. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
Analyzes AIDS activist interventions into the putatively pure world of medical science.
Roman, David. Acts of Intervention:Performance, Gay Culture, and AIDS. Bloomington: Indian University Press, 1998.
Examines various theatrical works, from cabarets and candlelight vigils to full-scale Broadway productions such as Angels in America and
Rent, as key components of AIDS activism.
Sturken, Marita. Tangled Memories: The Vietnam War, the AIDS Epidemic, and the Politics of Remembering. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.
Includes excellent analyses of the Names Project AIDS Quilt.
Treichler, Paula A. How to Have Theory in an Epidemic: Cultural Chronicles of AIDS. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000.
Vital collection of essays, including the classic title essay, and the piece "How to Have Theory in an Epidemic."
Watney, Simon. Policing Desire: Pornography, AIDS, and the Media. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.
Excellent analysis of media distortions of the AIDS crisis.

Subculture Theory and Sub-Cultural Studies

Gelder, Ken, and Sarag Thornton, eds. The Subcultures Reader London: Routledge, 1997.
Comprehensive collection of the most important thinking, historically and currently, on the nature and meanings of subcultures.
Hall, Stuart, ed. Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Postwar Britain. New York: Routledge, 1976.
Influential group of essays on various aspects of subculture theory and practice.
McRobbie, A. and T. McCabe, eds. Feminism for Girls: An Adventure Story. New York: Routledge, 1981.
Brake, Michael. Comparative Youth Culture: The Sociology of Youth Cultures and Youth Subcultures in America, Britain, and Canada. New York: Routledge, 1985.
General intro to subcult theory; British, and American subcults compared.
Lewis, George H. Side-Saddle on the Golden Calf: Social structure and popular culture in America. Goodyear Publishing Company, 1972.
Interesting essays on rock culture, counterculture and popular culture of the sixties in the US.

Hip Hop and the Politics of Black Urban Culture

Rose, Tricia. Black Noise: rap music and black culture in contemporary America.Hanover, NH: University Press of New England [for] Wesleyan University Press, 1994.
Excellent book on the politics of rap.
Keil, Charles. Urban Blues. Chicago: University of ChicagoPress, 1966.
Good on CRM influence on soul music and on black blues tradition; also a source for roots of rap.
Dundes, Alan, ed. Mother Wit From the Laughing Barrel: Readings in the Interpretation of Afro-American Folklore. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1972.
Styles of ghetto/street humor and rapping in earlier sense.
George, N., et. al. Fresh: Hip Hop Don't Stop. New York: Random House, 1985.
Separate essays on rapping, graffiti, breaking, and hip hop fashion.
Cooper, Martha, and Henry Chalfant. Subway Art. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984.
Little text but great glossy photos of graffiti art.
Castleman, Craig. Getting up: Subway Graffiti in New York. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982.
Includes chapters on various aspects of "writing" and interviews with some graffitists. Also has good bibliography on graffiti.
Toop, David.The Rap Attack: African Jive to New York Hip Hop. Boston, MA: The South End Press, 1984.
Places rap in long history of Afro-American music.
George, Nelson, ed. Stop The Violence.New York: Pantheon, 1990.
Chronicles anti-violence movement among rappers.
Nelson, Havelock, and Michael A. Gonzales. Bring the Noise: A Guide to Rap Music and Hip-Hop Culture. New York: Harmony Books, 1991.
Group by group study of rappers.
Wild Style Great. Dir. Charlie Ahearn. Rhino, 1982.
Film on early hip-hop culture.
Costello, Mark, and David Foster Wallace. Signifying Rappers: Rap and Race in the Urban Present. New York: Ecco Press, 1990.
Ross, Andrew, and Tricia Rose, eds. Microphone Fiends: Youth Music and Youth Culture. New York: Routledge, 1994.
Excellent collection of essays on rap and other contemporary styles.
Tate, Greg. Flyboy in the Buttermilk. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992.
Great collection of short essays on contemporary black cultural politics.
Eure, Joseph D., and James G. Spady, eds. Nation Conscious Rap: The Hip Hop Vision. PC International Press, 1991.
On rap and black nationalism.

Rastafarianism and Reggae As Political Cultures

Waters, Anita M. Race, Class, and Political Symbols: Rastafari and Reggae in Jamaican Politics. New Brunswick, US: Transaction Books, 1985.
Gilroy, Paul. There Ain't No Black in the Union Jack. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.
Includes a brilliant analysis of reggae and black culture.
Cashmore, Ernest. Rastaman: The Rastafari Movement in England. London: Allen and Unwin, 1979.
Clarke, Sebastian. Jah Music: The Evolution of the Popular Jamaican Song. Ashgate Publishing Company, 1980.
Hebdige, Dick. Cut 'n Mix: Culture, Identity, and Caribbean Music. London: Methuen, 1987.
Fine book on reggae.
White, Timothy. Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley. New York: H. Holt, 1998.
Thelwell, Michael. The Harder They Come. New York: Grove Press; distributed by Random House, 1980.
Novel which explores the political culture of poor black Jamaicans who created rebel reggae.
Jones, Simon. Black Culture, White Youth: The Reggae Tradition form JA to UK. Palgrave Macmillan, 1988.
Excellent study of race and youth.

Political Culture and Rock Music

Frith, Simon. Sound Effects: Youth, Leisure, and the Politics of Rock 'n' Roll. New York: Pantheon, 1981.
Excellent overall treatment of rock music; includes a useful bibliography on various aspects of rock as music, social force, and business.
Frith, Simon, and Andrew Goodwin, ed. On Record: Rock, Pop, and the Written Word. New York: Pantheon Books, 1990.
Excellent collection of articles on all aspects of the rock music biz and art, and various approaches to analyzing it.
Miller, Jim, ed.The Rolling Stone IllustratedHistory of Rock and Roll: the Definitive History of the Most Important Artists and their Music. New York: Random House, 1992.
Very useful collection of essays on various artists and rock genres.
Street, John. Rebel Rock: the Politics of Popular Music. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1986.
Fine, smart, lively book.
Marcus, Greil. Lipstick Traces: A Secret History of the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989.
Brilliant tracing of the history of punk rock music and culture through such earlier avant gardes as the Situationists and Dada. Places alternative rock in the wider context of radical cultural experiment.
Marsh, David, ed. Sun City. New York: Penguin Books Ltd., 1985.
On the anti-apartheid movement in US and its use of music.
Hatch, David, and S. Millward, eds. From Blues To Rock: An Analytical History of Pop Music. Manchester University Press, 1987.

Miscellaneous Readings

Lippard, Lucy R. Get The Message?: A Decade of Art for Social Change. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1984.
Excellent book on the politics of painting, performance art, poster art and other "high" and popular art genres in the sixties, seventies, and eighties.
___. Mixed Blessings: New Art in a Multicultural America. New York: Pantheon Books, 1990.
Excellent book on recent trends in fine arts by people of color.
Angus, Ian, and Sut Jhally. Cultural Politics in Contemporary America. New York: Routledge, 1989.
Buhle, Paul, ed. Popular Culture in America. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.
Lazere, Donald, ed. American Media and Mass Culture: Left Perspectives. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
Along with the two above anthologies (Angus and Jhally, and Buhle) this makes three fine collections of essays on various aspects of political/cultural struggle in the US today.